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On the African side of the city a rapid influx of migrant workers sparked the development of squatter camps on the Udi Hills near the coal mines and the Iva Valley.In 1938 Enugu became the administrative capital of the Eastern Region.“He belongs to my village and had been staying at my house for the last two months,” he said. The name Enugu is derived from the two Igbo words Énú Ụ́gwụ́ meaning "hill top" denoting the city's hilly geography.Mining in Enugu was sometimes turbulent, as demonstrated by the events of 18 November 1949 when 21 striking miners were shot and killed and 51 wounded by police under British governance.The massacre that came to be known as "The Iva Valley Shooting" "Zikisim" was a post World War II movement that was created out of admiration for Nnamdi Azikiwe who was a prominent nationalist of the National Council of Nigeria and the Cameroons (NCNC).Since the 17th century the location of present-day Enugu has been inhabited by the Nike () subgroup of the Igbo people; one of Enugu's neighbourhoods still retains the village's old name Ogui.In 1900 the Southern Nigeria Protectorate was established by the colonial administration of the British Empire.
Highlands surrounding Enugu for the most part are underlain by sandstone, while lowlands are underlain by shale.
Biafra was declared by Ojukwu because of Eastern Nigeria after their members were attacked injured and killed in a series of ethnic attacks launched by some other ethnic groups in other parts of the country following the first military coup executed by mostly Igbo generals, in which top northern Nigerian leaders among others were terminated.
The main rivals of the mostly Igbo Eastern Nigerians were the Hausa/Fulani people of Northern Nigeria.
Along with the Aro people who came to trade from Arochukwu in the south were the Hausa people who came to trade from the north.
The Hausa traders provided horses to the Nike which were used for rituals by the Igbo.
A war between the British and Aro officially started on 1 December 1901 lasting till 24 March 1902 when the Aro were defeated.